Vladimir Putin’s sabre-rattling regime could now be the focus of attacks from his own citizens
Igor Sutyagin, a senior research fellow at the Royal United Services Institute, said the war in Syria, state oppression of religious minorities and high youth unemployment had combined to create the "perfect" conditions for radicalisation.
Just this week, three Russians were detained in connection with the Istanbul bomb blast.
Islamic State (ISIS) claimed responsibility for the attack in Turkey that killed 10 German tourists.
The arrests fuelled fears that Vladimir Putin sabre-rattling regime could now be the focus of attacks from his own citizens.
Mr Sutyagin told "There is the threat [of homegrown extremists] because of the multinational structure of Russian society."
There are approximately 30million Muslims in Russia, he said, and if just 0.5 per cent of those were tempted by the extremist cause, that could produce thousands of twisted fighters.
He added: "The Russian government provides the excuse and reason for people to get radicalised.
"It is not only involved in the Syrian war but it is suppressing its own Muslims in the country."
Mr Sutyagin, who has written extensively on nuclear and conventional arms control, also blamed conflicts in Chechnya for the problem of radicalisation.
And he said an unemployment rate of more than 80 per cent amongst young people in the north Caucuses – which border Georgia and Azerbaijan – was leading to "terrorists activity".
By comparison, he said unemployment rates of between 40 and 50 per cent were enough to spark the Arab Spring and the toppling of governments across the Middle East.
Russia's north Caucas region is a hotbed of Islamic extremism and has sent hundreds – if not thousands – of Islamist fighters to war zones in Syria and Iraq.
He continued: "Imagine your salary is reduced by nine per cent – what is you reaction? Parity is growing really rapidly.
"Combined together that is the perfect reasons for radicalisation and home grown terrorism. Is there terrorism in Russia – yes there is."
Russia’s north Caucus region is a hotbed of Islamic extremism
The country's FSB security service estimates nearly 2,900 Russians have travelled to Iraq and Syria
There are approximately 30million Muslims in Russia
The country's FSB security service estimates nearly 2,900 Russians have travelled to Iraq and Syria to fight alongside militants since 2014.
Moscow has been fighting an increasingly bloody Islamist insurgency in the mostly Muslim North Caucasus, which includes the border regions along Russia's southern frontier with Georgia and Azerbaijan.
ISIS is known to operate in the Dagestan region of Russia and claimed to have carried out a gun attack that left one person dead and 11 injured on New Year's Eve.
Since June, ISIS militants have laid claim to parts of the region, including areas in Dagestan.